On every Saturday, in our SaturdaySawal series, we ask 1 question on Jainism which our thousands of Jain Followers & Subscribers try to answer!

On 25 August 2018, our question was as follows:

[Scroll Down to read the Answers by Our Jain Friends across the World]

 

First of all, to understand the answer to this Question we need to understand what is Ghost/Spirit as described popularly. Popularly people believe that Ghosts are wandering souls (Bhatakti Aatma) who can enter into someone’s body & harass him/her.

Is it so? can they enter our Body?

The Answer is NO, as per Jainism there is nothing like wandering soul which can enter into some other person’s body as believed in the other religions or popular myths. When a person dies his/her soul travels very very fast, right up & from there it takes another birth – all this happens in some micro-fractions of a second.

So does this mean Jainism doesn’t believe in Ghosts?

Jainism does believe in them but not the way it’s popularly believed!

Jainism mentions the existence of Vyantar Dev!

  1. Deformed humans – Kinnara.
  2. Deformed persons – Kinpuruss.
  3. Great serpent – Mahorag.
  4. Musician –Gandharva.
  5. Treasure keeper – Yaksha.
  6. Demon – Rakshasa.
  7. Devil – Bhut.
  8. Goblin – Pisacha.

These Devs usually roam in places like Grave Yards & Trees. They do harass someone with whom there is a connection of Past Karmas. They also help by becoming happy! After getting Samyag Darshan (Right Vision) they leave all the activities that cause binding of Paap Karmas & start doing Dharma Activities

Jainism has mentioned these Devs in various scriptures! They have been shown their deep connection with Humans as well Tirthankars!

You might have noticed in Jain temples that in addition to images/idols of Jinas, we notice images of Yakshas and Yakshinis (deities) in many Jain temples. These deities are seen as neither eternal nor divine, and they themselves are said to be worshippers of the Jina, true devotees of Jina. In addition, these Yakshas and Yakshinis are full of passions and are wandering through the cycles of births and death just like us.  Yakshas are males and Yakshinis are females.

They are also called Shäshandevtäs  (male ones) and Shäshandevis (female ones). They are guardian deities, angels of order. They are heavenly beings of Vyantar group who have supernatural powers including the ability to change their forms and sizes. Either these Yakshas and Yakshinis were appointed by Indra (king of heaven) or were positively associated with Tirthankars in their previous lives. Even though Tirthankars do not require or ask for any protection, these Yakshas and Yakshinis looked after Tirthankars and came back to protect the Jainism when it became necessary.

The earlier scriptures like the Sthanangasutra, Utradhyayansutra, Bhagwatisutra, Tattvarthsutra, Antagadasasaosutra, and Paumacariya have frequent references to Yakshas and Yakhinis. Many Jains pay their respect to these Yakshas and Yakhinis for having them provided protection to Tirthankars and to the existence of Jainism. These are the reasons, they are found around the images of Jinas as well as their individual images in many Jain temples.  

Yaksha usually found on the right side of the Jina idol while Yakshini on the left side. In Jain temples, they are never situated in superior physical locations in relation to images of the Jinas. These are benevolent Yakshas and Yakhinis.  

There are also malevolent Yakshas and Yakhinis who caused sufferings to Tirthankars and troubles to Jains and existence of Jainism. For example, Yaksha Sulpani troubled Lord Mahavira in his mediation and inflicted many sufferings. And there are similar stories in which malevolent Yakshas troubled others as well. We Jains do not pay our respects or worship Yakshas and Yakhinis for the material gains, favour and freedom from fear, illness and disease. We do pay our respect to them for their service to Tirthankars and Jainism. Asking for materialistic gains from them will be quite opposite of the teachings of Jinas.

The followings provide the brief description of commonly found Yakshas and Yakhinis in Jain temples:

 

CHAKRESHWARE DEVI

She is the dedicated attendant deity of Lord Adinath (Rishabhadev).  She is also called by another name i.e. Apratichakra.  The colour of this goddess is golden.  Her Vehicle is the eagle.  She has eight arms.  In her four right hands she holds the blessing mudrä (posture), arrow, rope and wheel. In her four left hands she holds the rein, the bow, the protective weapon of Indra and the wheel.

 

AMBIKA DEVI

She is the dedicated deity of Lord Neminath the 22nd Tirthankara.  She is also called Ambai Amba and Amra Kushmandini.  Her colour is golden and the lion is her vehicle.  She has four arms.  In her two right hands, she carries a mango and in the other a branch of a mango tree. In her one left hand she carries a rein and in the other, she has her two sons.

 

PADMAVATI DEVI

She is the dedicated deity of Lord Parshvanath, the 23rd Tirthankara.  Her colour is golden and her vehicle is the snake with a cock’s head.  She has four arms and her two right hands hold a lotus and a rosary.  The two left hands hold a fruit and a rein.

 

SARASWATI DEVI

Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge, is considered to be the source of all the learning.  This divine energy is the source of spiritual light, remover of all ignorance and promoter of all knowledge.  She is respected and adored by all the faiths, worldly persons and saints.  She has four arms, one holding a book, the other a rosary and two hands holding a musical instrument  Veenä.  Her seat is a lotus and the peacock is her vehicle representing equanimity in prosperity.  In some places, it is mentioned that the swan is her vehicle.

 

LAKSHMI DEVI

Goddess Lakshmi represents the wealth.  The people worship her as the goddess of wealth, power, money etc.  In the upper two hands, she is holding a lotus with an elephant, in the lower right hand a rosary and in the lower left hand a pot.

 

MANIBHADRA DEV

Shri Manibhadra is originally a Yaksha, worshipped by Indian masses since very old times and his introduction to Jain worship is only a later adaptation.  It is an image of six armed Yaksha with an elephant as his vehicle.

 

GHANTAKARNA VEER

This deity is worshipped for the protection and for driving away the evil influence created by the lower types of negative energy.  His arrow indicates penetration of evil forces. The bow gives forceful momentum to the arrow.  His symbol is the bell that resounds to create auspicious sounds in the atmosphere.  Sometimes the people who are not aware of the facts call him by mistake Ghantakarna Mahavira that creates confusion between Lord Mahavira and Ghantakarna Veer. He is not connected to Lord Mahävir in any way.

 

NAKODA BHAIRAVA

This is the tutelary deity of Bhairava.  This deity is usually found near the entrance of the temple.  People from far and near, visit the shrine and make offerings to the deity on fulfilment of their material desires.  It is the positive force around the temple.

 

BHOMIYAJI

This deity is in the shape of a mountain.  It is the natural positive energy of the mountain Sametshikharji.  This energy inspires and guides the believers and the travellers!

Also, there is another history involving Vyantar Devs regarding the creation of Upsargahara Stotra/Uvasaggaharam Stotra 

Uvasaggaharam Stotra is an adoration of the twenty-third Tīirthankara Parshvanatha. This Stotra was composed by Acharya Bhadrabahu who lived in around 2nd-4th century A.D. It is believed to eliminate obstacles, hardships, and miseries, if chanted with complete faith.

Bhadrabahu had a brother named Varāhamihira. Both were in the same kingdom. When a son was born to the king, Varahmihira declared that he would live for a hundred years but Bhadrabahu declared that he would live for only seven days and that he would be killed by a cat. On the eighth day, the prince died because a door fitting fell on his head; it had a picture of the cat drawn on it. Due to this humiliation, Varāhamihira left the kingdom; after some time he died.

After his death, Varāhamihira became a Vyantar (a type of deva or demigod who are mostly evil) and tortured and terrorized the Jains, especially disciples and followers of Bhadrabahu. Bhadrabahu then composed a mantric prayer to 23rd Jain Tirthankara Parshvanath called the “Upsargahara Stotra” (also known as Uvassagaharam Stotra) and called upon Dharnendra, the divine follower (a “devta”) of Parshvanath. As an effect of it, Varāhmihira was defeated and Jain society was relieved. The prayer is still famous among the Jains and has made Bhadrabahu’s name immortal among Jain ascetics.

This Stotra evoked demi-gods and they had to come to earth every time somebody read it with full concentration. In its original form it was very powerful. Soon people started using this Stotra excessively for smaller things and petty material desires. Fearing misuse of the same, two gatha (stanza) of the Stotra was abolished. Today in some books, though short of two stanzas, it still occupies the place of pride and is considered more powerful than any other prayer.

Hence! The summary of the Answer is Yes! Jainism believes in Ghosts & Spirits but not as the Popular Belief but as a type of Vyantar Dev!

Let’s now read what our Subscribers have answered:

First NameLast NameAs per Jainism, do Ghosts & Spirits Exist?
NeekitaPandpThere’s one thing about Ghosts and Spirits in Jainism. Also, there’s no clear answer as to a simple- “ Yes”, or just a “No”.

Therefore there’s detailed explanation to satisfy curiosity of all. Kshamapana for any omitting or mistake 🙏🏻 .

1) Bhūta (भूत).—The bhūtas are a group of deities categorised as belonging to the vyantara class of Gods (devas). The vyantaras represent a class of Gods (devas) comprising eight groups of deities that wander about the three worlds (adhaloka, madhyaloka and ūrdhvaloka).

2) Bhūta (भूत) is the shorter name of Bhūtadvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Bhūtasamudra (or simply Bhūta), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.

Bhūta is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
Bhūta (भूत).—A class of vyantara gods;—All Bhūtas are black according to both the sects (Digambara and Śvetāmbara). The Bhūtas are divided into seven classes (according to Digambara):

Svarūpa,
Pratirūpa,
Bhūtottama,
Mahābhūta,
Praticchanna,
Ākāśabhūta.
The Tulasī-plant is their Caitya-tree.

According to Śvetāmbara traditions there are nine classes of Bhūtas:

Surūpa,
Pratirūpa,
Atirūpa,
Bhūtottama,
Skanda,
Mahāskanda,
Mahāvega,
Praticchanda,
Ākāśaga.
They are said to be beautiful though black and are peaceful in appearance (saumya), adorned with paste marks of various motifs (bhakti-citra). their flags bear the mark of a Sulasa tree.

(Source): Google Books: Jaina Iconography
Bhūta (भूत) refers to the “devil” class of “peripatetic celestial beings” (vyantara), itself a category of devas (celestial beings), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.10. Who are the lords amongst the devil (bhūta) class of peripatetic (forest)celestial beings? Pratirupa and Svarupa are the two lords in the devil class of peripatetic celestial beings.



(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
RishabhJainNo
MuskanBaidNo
AnubhutiJaibJain dharam mai devo ke char nikay hote hai.1-Bhavanvasi, 2-vyantar, 3-jyotishi, aur 4-vaimanik. Dev gati naam Karam ke Uday hone par Jo Nana prakar ke krida karte hai vey Dev kahalate hai. Surya chandram aur taare yeh jyotishi Dev hai aur jyotishi Devo se urdh 16 swargo main vaimanik Dev hai. Aur zameen ke niche kharbhag main bhavanvasi Devo ka nivas hai. In vyantar Devo main kinnar, kimpursh, mahorav, gandharv, ye 4 Dev mahan hai. Yaksh, raksh yeh medium hai, bhoot , pichash yeh nimn jaati ke Dev hai, Jo ke Manish tatha Devo ko dukh utpann karte hai. Jyadatar bhoot ke aagya se picash manusho ya tiriyancho ke sarir main peeda utpann karte hai, kautal karte hai aur Nana prakar ke apne swang bana te hai, jaise aaj ke samay me pancham Kal ke mithiyati jeev apni peeda door Karne ke liye taanyriko ke pass jate hai. Uss tantrik ko kisi bhoot ya pichash ke siddhi rahati hai jiske dwara vaha logo ko gumrah karta hai, jiska pun karma ka Uday hota hai uska dukh theek how jata hai aur 99% logo ka dukh sahi nahi hota. Iske pivrit tantriko ke chakkar main sarir main peeda padh jate hai. Aap ke prashananusar bhoot pichash toh hote hai aur yehi bhoot pichash apni kriyao se logo ko satate hai. Kuch log unki kriyao se dar kar ke unko bhatakti aatama samaj let hai kyuki vyakrik sarir dhari Dev purva pariyaye see Mar kar turant vyakrik sarir dharan kar Leta hai for eg. Eak minute ke andar. Aur vaha rishte daro ya logo ko apni kriyao se prabhit Karne lagte hai, aur log use bhatakti aatama ka naam de determine hai, jabki bhatakti aatama koi nahi hoti
AnubhavJainJain dharm ke anusar dev ke 4 type hote hai. They are bhavanvasi, byantar, jyotishi and vaimanic... Jo divya bhav se sath 8 gudo se daily play karte hai and jinki body prakashman hai unko dev kahte hai...Jyotishi and vaimanic dev apne apne karya mai busy rahte hai ie vo kisi bhi human ko pareshan nahi karte... Sun, moon and stars are jyotishi dev and 16 heavens mai rehne Vale vaimanic dev hai... Vaimanic devo mai se saudharm and ishan Indra and more tirthankars ke kalyanak mai aate hai.. Bhavanvasi dev hamari earth ke neeche adolok mai rahte hai jaise padmavat and dharnendra etc.Ye bhi humans ko mostly pareshan nahi karte... Now coming to byantar Dev..Kinnar, kimpurush, mahorag, gandharva, yaksha, rakshakh, bhoot and pichash are 8 types of byantar dev... Ye dev vaikrik body Vale hote hai and mostly madhya lok ke soone places mai rahte hai.. Ye byantar devo mai rakshakh, bhoot and pichash dev hai vo mostly humans and animals ke bodies mai enter karke apni vikriya se mostly hani pahuchate hai and previous janmo ka revenge lete hai..Now for ur question, Jain dharma mai byantar devo ke types mai se Jo bhoot and pichash devo ke type hai, these both humans and animals ko pareshan krte hai.. Satya toh yah hai ki jis jeev ka paap karma ka uday aagaya toh purv janam ke revenge bhav ko avadhigyan se jankar uss jeev ko pareshan krte hai... Jis jeev ko satya shraddha hoti hai vo Inn devo ke pareshan karne se bhi satya faith se samta purvak karmo ko tolerate karta hai...
Question ka 2nd part about bhatakti aatma :-
At present time in panchamkal mostly jeev mithawthi (opposite faith) hai.. Vo jise bhatakti aatma bolte hai vo bhatakti aatma nahi hoti n infact vo ye bhoot and pichash ke dwara ki gayi cheeze hi hai and Inke dar se aaj ke people usse bhatakti aatma maan lete hai because ye sansar Mao jeev and karmo ka bandhan aanadikal se hai.. Vighragati mai bhi jeev ke sath karmad body rehti hai and bhoot, pichash mai janm lene per ye vaikrik body dharan karte hai.. Uss vaikrik body se ye different forms mai aakar logo ko dharate hai and agyani log usse bhatakti aata keh dete hai.. Bhoot, pichash ka existence toh hai but bhatakti aatma kuch nahi hoti..
KunalRanawatYes it does exist
RaynoPradityaThe answer whether ghosts and spirits exist or not per Jainism depends on what are your definition about ghosts and spirits.

There are 4 ghatis in Jainism:, hell tiryanch human and heaven..
The devas can appear as any form they like including the form that you think as ghosts or spirits.. Then ghost or spirits are exist per Jainism
Or you think that ghosts and spirits are being that is tortured in hell then they are exist.
Maybe for you, ghost and spirits are just hallucinations then they are also exist as hallucinations
bhupeshjainNahi , mere anusar ,
MaulikGodaनहीँ आत्मा भटकती नहीँ है मृत्यु होने के बाद आत्मा अधिक से अधिक 4 समय मेँ अपने अगले शरीर मेँ प्रवेश कर जाती है यह नियम है और 4 समय अत्यंत कम समय है पता नहीँ चलता इसलिए यह नियम मानना चाहिए कि आत्मा भटकती नहीँ है !
sankethjainYes, they are called vyantar dev. If someone's wish remains unfulfilled or if they are affectionate with someone, those souls may come back to meet that person although they are born as vyantar dev. They would remember from where they came and return to meet them. No soul remains as it is after one body dies. That soul immediately takes new birth in different body. That body may have supernatural powers.
NarenAnchaliaजैन धर्म के अनुसार भूत, प्रेत, भटकती आत्माओं का अस्तित्व है। यह आत्माएँ देवों का एक प्रकार है जिन्हें व्यणंतर देव कहते हैं।
NikitaGohilJai Jinendra

Jain Aagam ke anusar, Bhoot ya koi bhi bhatakti aatma jaisa kuch nhi hota, kyunki Mrutyu ke baad, Aatma jab ek sharir ko chod kar dusre sharir ko dharan karti hai toh usse 1-4 samai hi lagta hai, jisse Antral gati kehte hai. Toh itne kam time par koi aatma bhoot ban kar naahi dara sakti aur naahi koi aatma bhatakti hai kyunke nischint roop se Aatma ko kisi na kisi sharir ko dharan karna hi padta hai, agar Aatma pe lage 8 karma shay nahi huve ho toh.
Kisi ko agar bhoot jaisa aabhas bhi hota ho toh shayad ve vyantar dev ho sakte hai kyunke unke pas vaikriya sharir ki labdhi hoti hai matlab vah apna sharir ka roop badal sakte hai.
पूजा जैनचोरडियाबिल्कुल खुद पर बितती है तो हा भूत ओर भटकती आत्मा जरूर होती है आप मानो या ना मानो क्यो की मेने खुद देखा हैं
piyushluniyaIs there anything like ghosts or black magic in Jainism and can ghosts possess human body?
Jainism books are called Aagam and these are divided in 4 categories

Prathmanuyog

Karnanuyog

Drvyanuyog

Chrnanuyog

In all 4 types of yogs in Jainaagam , there is no method about black magic but when any one do meditation and being in touch with his nature of ॐ then many dev and devi present in his or her service.

Some people do tpsya with having punya uday, get success to make any small dev ot devi his servant for fulfilling his wrong and worst intentions it is called black magic in our daily language.

No dev and devi or aatma is without body in 3 Lok. Only Siddha Bhagvan is without body.

Dev and devi have special bodies and many powers because of their good deeds. They can’t make you happy or bother. In our time of pap uday ,anyone can become a medium to make us bother. For taking revenge or for entertainment some bad dev or devi can bother us in our pap uday . One body has one soul so no any other soul can be entered in a body but they can change their getup and etc.

According to Jainism…

Don’t afraid to anyone in this world but only with your wrong thoughts and wrong deeds.

Don't love anyone in this world but love your soul ,your good thoughts and deeds for mankind.

If you have any confusion than you can ask me.

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According to Sramana(Jaina) scriptures,

There are Vyantar Devs(a form of celestial beings) that can change their manifestations(because they have Vaikriya bodies unlike humans and animals having Audarik bodies). These Vyantar Devs are often called as Ghosts in the layman language.

Also when a person commits suicide(unnatural death) or Akaal mrutya(untimely death), as he has not completed his Ayu karma(Lifespan determining karmas) then for that particular time his/her soul wanders. But that is not as it is shown in horror movies. It is just that the soul is devoid of any body only for the time till it should have completed the human existence.
VivekJainNo. Atleast not in the form that is being popularised by the media and folklore. Out of the four gatis, dev gati has the only potential to visit us humans on Madhyalok. There are 4 categories of devtas i.e., Bhavanvasi, Vyantar, Vaimaanik and Jyotish. Out of these 4, only Bhavanvasi and Vyantar may stay on earth. These devtas are quite mild by nature but very inquisitive and take great pleasure from orchestrating mischiefs. Often they spook humans as a way of their fun activity. Since devtas have Awadhigyan, they can see if you might have harmed them in their past life. If so, they may take revenge like any other human being would have. I hope this helps your query. Rememeber there is no unknown with Jinvaani. Jai Jinendra.
AnkurJainजैन धर्म के अनुसार, आत्मा दो परिस्थितियों में ही शरीर रहित हो सकता है। एक तो सिद्ध बन जाने पर और दूसरे विग्रह गति में। अतः भूत की अवधारणा कल्पना मात्र है। जैनेतर लोग जो भूतों को मानते हैं, वे वास्तव में भूत (आत्मा) नहीं, भूत जाति के व्यन्तर देव हैं।
AshiJainNhi hote.....
Jain dharm ke anusar ye vyantar jati ke dev hote h
ParinDharodAs per Jainism Vyantar n Van vyantar dev are Ghost type Dev...soo basically Ghost are there but they are dev...
AkankshBhavsarYes they do, they count as very low dev ghati and happen when one does worship and tapa without understanding what it is and why. Therefore it is very hard to be born as a ghost let alone devghati (which is 1/100,000) .however, they don’t bother people unless it is in the persons karma or they did something to it’s area or something.
I think that it is meantime’s in the bruhad moti shanti.
UditAdhikariसांख्य दर्शन और बौद्ध दर्शनों में क्रमश: तत्त्व और आर्य सत्यों का कथन किया गया है, वेदान्त दर्शन में केवल ब्रह्म (आत्मतत्व) और चार्वाक दर्शन में भूत तत्त्वों को माना गया है, वहाँ जैन दर्शन में द्रव्य, पदार्थ, तत्त्व, और अस्तिकाय को स्वीकार कर उन सबका पृथक्-पृथक् विस्तृत निरूपण किया गया है।*
जो ज्ञेय के रूप में वर्णित है और जिनमें हेय-उपादेय का विभाजन नहीं है पर तत्त्वज्ञान की दृष्टि से जिनका जानना ज़रूरी है तथा गुण और पर्यायों वाले हैं एवं उत्पाद, व्यय, ध्रौव्य युक्त हैं, वे द्रव्य हैं।
तत्त्व का अर्थ मतलब या प्रयोजन है। जो अपने हित का साधक है वह उपादेय है और जो आत्महित में बाधक है वह हेय है। उपादेय एवं हेय की दृष्टि से जिनका प्रतिपादन के उन्हें तत्त्व कहा गया है।
भाषा के पदों द्वारा जो अभिधेय है वे पदार्थ हैं। उन्हें पदार्थ कहने का एक अभिप्राय यह भी है कि 'अर्थ्यतेऽभिलष्यते मुमुक्षुभिरित्यर्थ:' मुमुक्षुओं के द्वारा उनकी अभिलाषा की जाती है, अत: उन्हें अर्थ या पदार्थ कहा गया है।
अस्तिकाय की परिभाषा करते हुए कहा है कि जो 'अस्ति' और 'काय' दोनों है। 'अस्ति' का अर्थ 'है' है और 'काय' का अर्थ 'बहुप्रदेशी' है अर्थात जो द्रव्य है' होकर कायवाले- बहुप्रदेशी हैं, वे 'अस्तिकाय' हैं।* ऐसे पाँच द्रव्य हैं-
पुद्गल,
धर्म,
अधर्म,
आकाश और
जीव,
कालद्रव्य एक प्रदेशी होने से अस्तिकाय नहीं है।
द्रव्य का स्वरूप
आचार्य कुन्दकुन्द* और गृद्धपिच्छ* ने द्रव्य का स्वरूप दो तरह से बतलाया है। एक है, जो सत है वह द्रव्य है और सत वह है जिसमें उत्पाद (उत्पत्ति), व्यय (विनाश) और ध्रौव्य (स्थिति) ये तीनों पाये जाते हैं। विश्व की सारी वस्तुएँ इन तीन रूप हैं। उदाहरणार्थ एक स्वर्ण घट को लीजिए। जब उसे मिटाकर स्वर्णकार मुकुट बनाता है तो हमें घट का विनाश, मुकुट का उत्पाद और स्वर्ण के रूप में उसकी स्थिति तीनों दिखायी देते हैं। इसका सबसे बड़ा साक्ष्य (प्रमाण) यह है* कि घट चाहने वाले को उसके मिटने पर शोक, मुकुट चाहने वाले को मुकुट बनने पर हर्ष और स्वर्ण चाहने वाले को उसके मिटने पर न शोक होता है और मुकुट बनने पर न हर्ष होता है किन्तु वह मध्यस्थ (शोक-हर्ष विहीन) रहता है, क्योंकि वह जानता है कि स्वर्ण दोनों अवस्थाओं में विद्यमान रहता है।
द्रव्य के भेद
मूलत: द्रव्य के दो भेद हैं*-
जीव और
अजीव।
चेतन को जीव और अचेतना को अजीव द्रव्य कहा गया है। तात्पर्य यह कि जिसमें चेतना पायी जाती है वह जीव द्रव्य है और जिसमें चेतना नहीं है वह अजीव द्रव्य है। चेतना का अर्थ है जिसके द्वारा जाना और देखा जाए और इसलिए उसके दो भेद कहे हैं-
ज्ञान चेतना और
दर्शन चेतना। ज्ञान चेतना को ज्ञानोपयोग और दर्शनचेतना को दर्शनोपयोग भी कहते हैं। व्यवसायात्मक रूप से जो वस्तु का विशेष ग्रहण होता है वह ज्ञानचेतना अथवा ज्ञानोपयोग है और अव्यवसाय (विकल्परहित) रूप से जो पदार्थ का सामान्य ग्रहण होता है वह दर्शनचेतना अथवा दर्शनोपयोग है। पूज्यपाद-देवनंदि ने कहा है* 'साकारं ज्ञानं निराकारं दर्शनम्' आकार विकल्प सहित ग्रहण का नाम ज्ञान है और आकार रहित ग्रहण का नाम दर्शन है।
जीवद्रव्य और उसके भेद
जीवद्रव्य दो वर्गों में विभक्त है*-
संसारी और
मुक्त।
संसारी जीव वे हैं, जो संसार में जन्म-मरण–व्याधि आदि के चक्र में फँसे हुए हैं। ये नरक, तिर्यंच, मनुष्य और देव-इन चारों गतियों में बार-बार पैदा होते और मरते हैं तथा जैसा उनका कर्मविपाक होता है तदनुसार वे वहाँ अच्छा-बुरा फल भोगते हैं। ये दो तरह के हैं*-
त्रस और
स्थावर।
दो इन्द्रिय, तीन इन्द्रिय, चार इन्द्रिय और पाँच इन्द्रिय के भेद से जीव चार प्रकार के हैं।* दो इन्द्रिय आदि जीवों की भी अनेक जातियाँ हैं। उदाहरण के लिए पंचेन्द्रिय जीवों को लें। इनके दो भेद हैं*
संज्ञी,
असंज्ञी।
जिनके मन पाया जाए वे संज्ञी पंचेन्द्रिय जीव कहे जाते हैं। मनुष्य, देव, और नारकी संज्ञी पंचेन्द्रिय ही होते हैं। असंज्ञी पंचेन्द्रिय जीव वे हैं जिनके मन न हो और जो सोच-विचार न कर सकते हों तथा न शिक्षा ग्रहण कर सकते हों। तिर्यंचगति में एकेन्द्रिय से लेकर असंज्ञी, संज्ञी पंचेद्रिय सभी प्रकार के जीव होते हैं।
संज्ञी पंचेन्द्रिय तिर्यंचों के भी तीन भेद हैं-
जलचर- जल में रहने वाले मगर, मत्स्य आदि।
थलचर- ज़मीन पर चलने वाले गाय, भैंस, गदहा, शेर, हाथी आदि और
नभचर- आकाश में उड़ने वाले कौआ, कोयल, कबूतर, चिड़िया आदि पक्षी।
जिनके मात्र एक स्पर्शन इन्द्रिय, स्पर्श बोध कराने वाली इन्द्रिय पायी जाती है, वे स्थावर जीव हैं।* ये पांच प्रकार के होते है।–
पृथ्वी-कायिक,
जलकायिक,
अग्निकायिक,
वायुकायिक और
वनस्पतिकायिक।
मुक्तजीव वे कहे गए हैं* जो संसार के बंधनों और दु:खों से छूट मोक्ष प्राप्त कर लेते हैं। जैन दर्शन में ऐसे जीवों को 'परम-आत्मा' परमात्मा कहा गया है। ये दो प्रकार के होते हैं-
सकल परमात्मा (आप्त), और
निकल परमात्मा (सिद्ध)।
जिनका कुछ कल अवशेष है वे सकल परमात्मा, जीवन मुक्त ईश्वर हैं। जिनका वह कल, अघाति कर्ममल दूर हो जाता है वे नि: निर्गत:- निष्क्रान्त: कलोऽघातिचतुष्टयरूपो येषाम् ते, निकल परमात्मा, सिद्ध परमेष्ठी है।
shrutideshlahrayes as per jainism ghost and sprits are exist because vanvayantar devta exists..
gauravjainyes
as per jain shastra they are called vyantar dev
VikashJainAatma, bhoot sab vanjan dev matlab bure devi davta....yeh bhi ek tarah ka bhav hai jo paap karmo ke karan bhugatna padta hai...yeh dev jeevo ko satate hai ...iss mai bhi kahi tarah ke dev hote hai...yes they do exist
rinkitajainYes Ghosts And spirits exits

 

 


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