On every Saturday, in our SaturdaySawal series, we ask 1 question on Jainism which our thousands of Jain Followers & Subscribers try to answer!

On 4 August 2018, our question was as follows:

[Scroll Down to read the Answers by Our Jain Friends across the World]

We have changed the Writing Pattern after receiving many reviews , we will write our Answer on Top followed by all the Answers by those who have submitted their Answers:

So Let’s understand Who are Shalakha Purush?

In the Jain tradition, there are sixty three highly endowed people who are known as Shalaka Purush or great men. They are 24 Tirthankars, 12 Chakravaritis, 9 Baldevs, 9 Vasudevs, and 9 Prativasudevs. A study of these worthy beings enables one to understand, absorb and assimilate Jain teachings in one’s life.

a) Tirthankars (Also Called Arhats/Arihants/Jineshwar/Jina): 
Tirthankars are those Siddhas who profound the truth during their lifetime which is a higher thing. The Jains have Arhats, the Siddhas, and the Tirthankars who in the simpler terms and in a corresponding manner are: those who deserve those who accomplish and those who sanctify. It is possible for every man to attain the highest state. Tirthankars take the place of God in the Jain philosophy. Tirthankara (“Fordmaker”) is a human who achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), through asceticism. A Tirthankar becomes a Jina (after totally conquering anger, pride, deceit, desire, etc.). A Tirthankar is the founder of a “Tirth”, a Jain community which acts as a “ford” across the “river of human misery”.

Sr.No Name Symbol Birthplace Colour Age
1 Rishabhanatha (Adinatha) Bull Ayodhya Golden 84,00,000 Purva
2 Ajitanatha Elephant Ayodhya Golden 72,00,000 Purva
3 Sambhavanatha Horse Shravasti Golden 60,00,000 Purva
4 Abhinandananatha Monkey Samet Sikhar Golden 50,00,000 Purva
5 Sumatinatha Heron Ayodhya Golden 40,00,000 Purva
6 Padmaprabha Padma Samet Sikhar Red 30,00,000 Purva
7 Suparshvanatha Swastika Samet Sikhar Golden 20,00,000 Purva
8 Chandraprabha Crescent Moon Chandrapuri White 10,00,000 Purva
9 Pushpadanta Crocodile Kakandi White 2,00,000 Purva
10 Shitalanatha Shrivatsa Bhadrikpuri Golden 1,00,000 Purva
11 Shreyanasanatha Rhinoceros Samet Sikhar Golden 84,00,000 Years
12 Vasupujya Buffalo Champapuri Red 72,00,000 Years
13 Vimalanatha Boar Kampilya Golden 60,00,000 Years
14 Anantanatha Falcon Ayodhya Golden 30,00,000 Years
15 Dharmanatha Vajra Ratnapuri Golden 10,00,000 Years
16 Shantinatha Antelope or deer Hastinapur Golden 1,00,000 Years
17 Kunthunatha Goat Hastinapur Golden 95,000 Years
18 Aranatha Nandyavarta or fish Hastinapur Golden 84,000 Years
19 Māllīnātha Kalasha Mithila Blue 55,000 Years
20 Munisuvrata Tortoise Kusagranagar Black 30,000 Years
21 Naminatha Blue lotus Mithila Golden 10,000 Years
22 Neminatha Shankha Dvaraka Black 1,000 Years
23 Parshvanatha Snake Kashi Blue 100 Years
24 Mahavira Lion Kshatriyakund Golden 72 Years

b) Chakravarti: 
A Chakravarti is the emperor of the world, lord of the material realm. Though he possesses worldly power, he often finds his ambitions dwarfed by the enormity of the cosmos. One of the greatest Chakravartis mentioned in Jain scriptures is Bharata in whose memory India came to be known as “Bharata-Varsha”.After conquering the whole world, King Bharata, brimming with pride, sought to inscribe his great feat on the slopes of Mount Meru. To his great dismay, he found names of many other kings carved on Holy Mount Meru.Like him, they too had conquered the world. He was not the first man to do so. He was not the last. There were many before him, there were many after him. Bharata, humbled by the experience, returned to his kingdom to do his duty, aware that his actions were not unique and that his existence was not special.

The names of twelve Chakravartis of Bharat area during the current descending cycle are –

1. Bharat, 2. Sagar, 3. Maghava, 4. Sanat Kumar, 5. Shantinath, 6. Kunthunath, 7. Arnath, 8. Subhum, 9. Padma, 10. Harishen, 11. Jaisen, 12. Brahmadatta.

c) Baladev: 
He is the elder brother of a Vasudev and has an extreme attachment with his younger brother. A Baldev’s mother sees four great dreams. He has the strength of a million octopeds. Four thousand Gods are in his attendance. His weapons, including mace and plough, are blessed by a thousand Gods each. Because of their mutual affection, Baldev and Vasudev rule jointly. After the death of the Vasudev, Baldev becomes an ascetic and indulges n spiritual practices. Some of them are liberated and others are reincarnated in dimensions of Gods.

The nine Baladevas (Balabhadras) are:

  1. Vijaya
  2. Achala
  3. Dharmaprabha
  4. Suprabha
  5. Sudarsana
  6. Nandi (Ananda)
  7. Nandimitra
  8. Ramachandra
  9. Padma

d) Vasudev: 
A Vasudev in his earlier births sheds some specific karmas and determines to acquire this status. His soul then incarnates either in the heaven or the hell and then is born as Vasudev. At the time of his conception, his mother sees seven great dreams. His complexion is dark. He has the strength equivalent to 2 million octopeds and he conquers three continents by killing the Prativasudev. He has 16000 kingdoms and kings under his subjugation and 8000 Gods in his attendance. He has 16000 queens and seven gems. Vasudeva is a hero who appears on earth from time to time to save the world from the villain Prativasudeva. He is always accompanied by a wiser, older and gentler elder brother known as Baladeva. Baladeva upholds the Jain principle of non-violence. Vasudeva, however, forsakes this principle for the good of humanity as he kills the Prativasudeva.

The nine Vasudevas (Narayans) are:

  1. Tripushta
  2. Dvipushta
  3. Svayambhu
  4. Purushottama
  5. Nara(Purusha)Simba
  6. Pundarika
  7. Dattadeva
  8. Lakshmana
  9. Krishna

e) Prativasudev: 
They also determine their status in their earlier births and are monarchs of three continents. Their powers are slightly lower than that of the Vasudevs. They are necessarily killed by the Vasudevs and go to hell.
In the Jain Ramayana, king Ravana (Prati-Vasudeva) who abducts Sita, wife of Prince Rama of Ayodhya (Earlier known as Vinita City), is killed by Lakshmana. Rama refrains from doing so. By adhering to non-violence, he earns the exalted rank of a Baladeva. In the Jain Mahabharata, Krishna (Vasudev) Kills Jarasandh (Prativasudev) .His elder brother Sankharshana/ Balbhadra is the Baladeva, he refuses to fight the war, renounces the world and finds release!

The nine Prati-Vasudevas (Prati-Narayans) are:

  1. Asvagriva
  2. Taraka
  3. Naraka
  4. Nisumbha
  5. Madhukaitabh
  6. Prahlada
  7. Bali
  8. Ravana
  9. Jarasandha

The names of nine Vasudevs, Baldevs, and Prativasudevs of Bharat area during the present descending cycle are as follows:

No.

Baldev

Vasudev

PrtiVasudev

Tirthankar Period

 1. Vijay Triprishtha Ashvagriv Contemporary to Shreyans
 2. Achal Dwiprishtha Tarak Contemporary to Vasupujya
 3. Saudharm Svayambhu Merak Contemporary to Vimalnath
 4. Suprabh Purushottam Madhukaitabh Contemporary to Anantnath
 5. Sudarshan Purushasimha Nishumbh Contemporary to Dharmnath
 6. Nandi Purushpundarik Bali Between Arnath and Mallinath
 7. Nandimitra Datta Prahlad Between Arnath and Mallinath
 8. Ram Narayan (Laxman) Ravan Between Munisuvrat and Naminath
 9. Balbhadra (Balram) Krishna Jarasandh Contemporary to Neminath

 

The maximum and minimum numbers of Baldev, Vasudev and Prativasudev are 108 and 20. It is believed that as Tirthankar does not meet another Tirthankar, a Chakravarti and a Vasudev also do not meet another Chakravarti and Vasudev respectively. Also a Vasudev does not meet a Chakravarti.

 

Now, let’s see what answers we have Received:

  1. Disha Shah Says : They are 63 highly endowed persons (great men) as under 24 tirthankars 12 chakravati 9 vasudevs (narayans) 9 prati vasudevs (prati narayans) 9 baladevas (balabhadras).
  2. Akansh Bhavsar: They are the 63 great men who have the stamp of approval to be called god . They have samayag drishti and will get moksha soon. Like Vasudeva Shri Krishna will be Tirthankar of next chovisi. They are all great and powerful and knowledgable.
  3. Neekita Says: 24 Tirthakaras – Name and Symbols Tirthankar Symbol 1. Lord Rishabha (Adinath) Bull or Ox 2. Lord Ajitnath Elephant 3. Lord Sambhavnath Horse 4. Lord Abhinandannath Monkey 5. Lord Sumatinath Curlew or Red Goose 6. Lord Padmaprabhu Lotus 7. Lord Suparshvanath Swastika 8. Lord Chandraprabhu Moon 9. Lord Pushpadanta Crocodile 10. Lord Sheetalnath Kalpa-vriksha (Digambara) Srivatsa (Swetambara) 11. Lord Shreyansnath Rhinoceros 12. Lord Vasupujya Buffalo 13. Lord Vimalnath Pig 14. Lord Anantnath Porcupine (Digambara) Falcon (Swetambara) 15. Lord Dharmanath Vajra 16. Lord Shantinath Deer 17. Lord Kunthunath He-Goat 18. Lord Arahnath Fish (Digambara) Nandavrata (Swetambara) 19. Lord Mallinath Urn (Kalasha) 20. Lord Munisuvrata Tortoise 21. Lord Naminath Blue Water Lily or Blue Lotus 22. Lord Neminath Conch (Shankh) 23. Lord Parshvanath Snake (Naag) 24. Lord Mahaveera Lion Chakravarti The highest monarch in the human world is known as Chakravarti. He reigns over one specific section of any of the three worlds known as Bharat, Airavat, or Mahavideh. The number of countries under his reign is 32000. He has 32000 subordinate kings and 25000 gods in his attendance. He is the owner of nine types of wealth and fourteen types of gems. He has 64000 queens, 20000 mines each of gold and silver and 16000 mines of gems. His army comprises of 8.4 million each of elephants, horses and chariots; 960 million foot soldiers; 9.9 million personal guards; and 16000 ministers. He has the combined power of 4 million octopeds (a mythical creature). The minimum and maximum number of Chakravartis in all dimensions inhabited by humans are 20 and 150. The names of twelve Chakravartis of Bharat area during the current descending cycle are -1. Bharat, 2. Sagar, 3. Maghava, 4. Sanat Kumar, 5. Shantinath, 6. Kunthunath, 7. Arnath, 8. Subhum, 9. Padma, 10. Harishen, 11. Jaisen, 12. Brahmadatta. Baladev He is elder brother of a Vasudev and has extreme attachment with his younger brother. A Baldev’s mother sees four great dreams. He has the strength of a million octopeds. Four thousand gods are in his attendance. His weapons, including mace and plough are blessed by a thousand gods each. Because of their mutual affection Baldev and Vasudev rule jointly. After the death of the Vasudev, Baldev becomes and ascetic and indulges n spiritual practices. Some of them are liberated and others are reincarnated in dimensions of gods. The nine Baladevas (Balabhadras) are: Vijaya Achala Dharmaprabha Suprabha Sudarsana Nandi (Ananda) Nandimitra Ramachandra Padma Vasudev A Vasudev in his earlier births sheds some specific karmas and determines to acquire this status. His soul then incarnates either in the heaven or the hell and then is born as Vasudev. At the time of his conception his mother sees seven great dreams. His complexion is dark. He has the strength equivalent to 2 million octopeds and he conquers three continents by killing the Prativasudev. He has 16000 kingdoms and kings under his subjugation and 8000 gods in his attendance. He has 16000 queens and seven gems. The nine Vasudevas (Narayans) are: Tripushta Dvipushta Svayambhu Purushottama Nara(Purusha)Simba Pundarika Dattadeva Lakshmana Krishna Prativasudev They also determine their status in their earlier births and are monarchs of three continents. Their powers are slightly lower than that of the Vasudevs. They are necessarily killed by the Vasudevs and go to hell. The maximum and minimum numbers of Baldev, Vasudev and Prativasudev are 108 and 20. It is believed that as Tirthankar does not meet another Tirthankar, a Chakravarti and a Vasudev also do not meet another Chakravarti and Vasudev respectively. Also a Vasudev does not meet a Chakravarti. The nine Prati-Vasudevas (Prati-Narayans) are: Asvagriva Taraka Naraka Nisumbha Madhukaitabh Prahlada Bali Ravana Jarasandha.
  4. Sahil Jain Says: शलाका पुरुषों के द्वारा भूमि पर धर्म, अर्थ, काम और मोक्ष के दर्शन की उत्पत्ति और उत्थान को माना जाता है। और इस काल में ६३ शलाका पुरुष जिसमें हमारे 24 तीर्थंकर 12 चक्रवर्ती 9 वासुदेव और ९ बलदेव शलाका पुरुष में गिने जाते हैं जैन धर्म में Shalaka Purush की मान्यता बहुत है प्रत्येक काल में ६३ शलाका पुरुष होते हैं!!!!
  5. Pappu Jain Surana Says : तीर्थंकर चक्रवर्ती आदि प्रसिद्ध पुरुषों को शलाका पुरुष कहते हैं। प्रत्येक कल्पकाल में ६३ होते हैं। २४ तीर्थंकर, १२ चक्रवर्ती, ९ बलदेव, ९ नारायण, ९ प्रतिनारायण। अथवा ९ नारद, १२ रुद्र, २४ कामदेव, व १६ कुलकर आदि मिलाने से १६९ शलाका पुरुष होते हैं।
  6. Rahil Shah Says: In the Jain tradition there are sixty three highly endowed person who are known as Shalaka Purush ( great men). They are: 24 – Tirthankaras 12 – Chakravati 9 – Vasudevas (Narayans) 9 – Prati-Vasudevas (Prati-Narayans) 9 – Baladevas (Balabhadras)
  7. Sakshi Banthia Says: कुलकरों की परम्परा के बाद जैन धर्म में क्रमश: चौबीस तीर्थंकर, बारह चक्रवर्ती, नौ बलभद्र, नौ वासुदेव और नौ प्रति वासुदेव मिलाकर कुल 63 पुरुष हुए हैं। 24 तीर्थंकरों का जैन धर्म और दर्शन को विकसित और व्यवस्थित करने में महत्वपूर्ण योगदान रहा है। शलाका पुरुषों के द्वारा भूमि पर धर्म, अर्थ, काम और मोक्ष के दर्शन की उत्पत्ति और उत्थान को माना जाता है। उक्त में से अधिकतर की ऐतिहासिक प्रामाणिकता सिद्ध है। जैन भगवान राम को बलभद्र मानते हैं और भगवान कृष्ण की गिनती नौ वासुदेव में करते हैं। उक्त तिरसठ शलाका पुरुषों के इतिहास को क्रमानुसार लिखने की आवश्यकता है। Tirthankars (Also Called Arhats/Arihants/Jineshwar/Jina): Tirthankars are those Siddhas who profound the truth during their life time which is a higher thing. The Jains have Arhats, the Siddhas, and the Tirthankars who in the simpler terms and in the corresponding manner are: those who deserve those who accomplish, and those who sanctify. It is possible for every man to attain the highest state.Tirthankars take the place of God in the Jain philosophy. Tirthankara (“Fordmaker”) is a human who achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), through asceticism. A Tirthankar becomes a Jina (after totally conquering anger, pride, deceit, desire, etc.). A Tirthankar is the founder of a “Tirth”, a Jain community which acts as a “ford” across the “river of human misery”. b) Chakravarti: A Chakravarti is the emperor of the world, lord of the material realm. Though he possesses worldly power, he often finds his ambitions dwarfed by the enormity of the cosmos. One of the greatest Chakravartis mentioned in Jain scriptures is Bharata in whose memory India came to be known as “Bharata-varsha”.After conquering the whole world, King Bharata, brimming with pride, sought to inscribe his great feat on the slopes of Mount Meru. To his great dismay, he found names of many other kings carved on Holy Mount Meru.Like him, they too had conquered the world. He was not the first man to do so. He was not the last. There were many before him, there were many after him. Bharata, humbled by the experience, returned to his kingdom to do his duty, aware that his actions were not unique and that his existence was not special. c) Baladev: He is elder brother of a Vasudev and has extreme attachment with his younger brother. A Baldev’s mother sees four great dreams. He has the strength of a million octopeds. Four thousand Gods are in his attendance. His weapons, including mace and plough are blessed by a thousand Gods each. Because of their mutual affection Baldev and Vasudev rule jointly. After the death of the Vasudev, Baldev becomes an ascetic and indulges n spiritual practices. Some of them are liberated and others are reincarnated in dimensions of Gods. d) Vasudev: A Vasudev in his earlier births sheds some specific karmas and determines to acquire this status. His soul then incarnates either in the heaven or the hell and then is born as Vasudev. At the time of his conception his mother sees seven great dreams. His complexion is dark. He has the strength equivalent to 2 million octopeds and he conquers three continents by killing the Prativasudev. He has 16000 kingdoms and kings under his subjugation and 8000 Gods in his attendance. He has 16000 queens and seven gems. Vasudeva is a hero who appears on earth from time to time to save the world from the villain Prativasudeva. He is always accompanied by a wiser, older and gentler elder brother known as Baladeva.Baladeva upholds the Jain principle of non-violence. Vasudeva however forsakes this principle for the good of humanity as he kills the Prativasudeva. e) Prativasudev: They also determine their status in their earlier births and are monarchs of three continents. Their powers are slightly lower than that of the Vasudevs. They are necessarily killed by the Vasudevs and go to hell. In the Jain Ramayana, king Ravana (prativasudeva) who abducts Sita, wife of Prince Rama of Ayodhya (Earlier known as Vinita City), is killed by Lakshmana. Rama refrains from doing so. By adhering to non-violence, he earns the exalted rank of a Baladeva. In the Jain Mahabharata, Krishna (Vasudev) Kills Jarasandh (Prativasudev) .His elder brother Sankharshana/ Balbhadra is the Baladeva ,he refuses to fight the war, renounces the world and finds release. Since Jainism (Shraman Culture ) is oldest original religion of India all other faiths including vedic were influenced by Jainism & Jain Shakalpurush. There exist Jain Ramayan & Jain Mahabharat versions. इति।
  8. Tejas Rupani Says: In every ascents and descents, there are 63 salakha purush. 24 tirthankar 12 chakra varti 9 vasudev 9 prati vasudev 9 baldev
  9. Trupti Bafna Says: 63 Shalaka Purush In the Jain tradition there are sixty three highly endowed person who are known as Shalaka Purush ( great men). They are: 24 – Tirthankaras 12 – Chakravati 9 – Vasudevas (Narayans) 9 – Prati-Vasudevas (Prati-Narayans) 9 – Baladevas (Balabhadras)
  10. Yashpal Doshi says: तीर्थंकर चक्रवर्ती आदि प्रसिद्ध पुरुषों को शलाका पुरुष कहते हैं। कुलकरों की परम्परा के बाद जैन धर्म में क्रमश: चौबीस तीर्थंकर, बारह चक्रवर्ती, नौ बलभद्र, नौ वासुदेव और नौ प्रति वासुदेव मिलाकर कुल 63 पुरुष हुए हैं। इन महापुरुषों का जीवन चरित्र दूसरों के लिए प्रेरणादायी होता है। ऐसे ही ये महापुरुष पूर्वकाल में भी अनंतों हो चुके हैं और भविष्य में भी होते ही रहेंगे।
  11. Sunita Challani Says: These are the souls that are bhavyaas and are in every -1/2cycle of time (avisarpini & utsarpini) and attain Moksha either in the same birth or with one or two birth.There are 63shalaka purush great personality in Jain mythology who are known as trishashti sahalaka purush.
  12. Rayno Praditya Says: Shalakha Purusha means the worthy persons according to Jainism.. There are 63 worthy persons in each half time cycle.. These 63 worthy persons consist of 24 Tirthankars, 12 Chakravartin (universal king), 9 Balabhadras (gentle heroes), 9 Narayanas (warrior heroes) and 9 Prati-narayanas (villain heroes). In each half time cycle there is another set of these 63 worthy persons to restore the order of Jainism. Time has no beginning and ends so there are infinite salakha purusha.
  13. Gautam Hanje Says: Shalaka purush-24 Thirthankaras , 9 Narayana, 9 prathinarayanas , 9 bhalbadhra and 12 chakrawarhi
  14. Nikita Gohil Says: Jai Jinendra Jainism ke 63 Mahapurushu jinhe Shalakha Purush ke naam se jana jata hai. 24 Tirthankar, 12 Chakravarti, 9 Baldev, 9 Vasudev aur 9 Prativasudev sabhi mila kar 63 Shalakha Purush hote hai.
  15. Anubhav Jain Says: Shalakha Purush Pradhan (Prime) purusho ko kahte hai… Total there are 63 Shalakha purush who always born in chaturth (4th) kal.. These Shalakha purush consists of 24 tirthankars, 12 chakravarti, 9 narayan, 9 prati-narayan and 9 balbhadra.. Always balbhadra and narayan used to born in same family and both are brother.. On other hand narayan and prati-narayan always are enemy for each.. They always had a fight against each other and always narayan used to win the war.. Tirthankars always go to moksha thus ending the sansar forever, most of the chakravartis used to go moksha but depending on the karmas they do some chakravartis might go to heaven and some to the hell.. Narayan and prati-narayan always go in hell because of their anger and case of balbhadras are same as case of chakravartis.. This is the distribution of 63 Shalakha purush and their work..
  16. Anubhuti Jain Says : Shalakha Purush pure chaturth kal (jis ka samay hai eak kora kori sagar) main 63 salaka purush hote hai. Jisme 24 Tirthankar, 12 Chakravartiya, 9 Narayan, 9 Pratinarayan, 9 Balbhadra hote hai. Inko Mahanpurush bhi kaha jata hai. In purusho ke jeevan charitra ko samajh kar bahut se jeev kalyan marg par chal kar moksh ke prapti karte hai.
  17. Jay Khandhar: Salakha purush me 63 log aate he.inme 24 tirthankar hote he,12 Chakravarti hote he,9 Vasudev,9 prativasudev,9 Baldev hote he
  18. Kuldip Bothra Says: कर्म भूमि की सभ्यता के युग मे शालाका पुरूषो का अर्थ उन महापुरुषों से है, जो सभी तरह की सामाजिक व्‍यवस्था एवं वैयतिक जीवन उत्थान में योगदान देते हैं. सामाजिक चेतना का विकास और धर्म चक्र का प्रवर्तन भी एन्ही महापुरुषों के द्वारा होता है. 63 शालाका पुरूषो मे 24तीर्थंकर, 12 चक्र वर्ती, 9 नारायण, 9 बल भद्र और 9 प्रति नारायण संम्लित है.
  19. Sonam Suchanti Says: There are 63 shalakha purush : 24 tirthankaras 12 chakravarti 9 vasudevas( narayanas) 9 prati-vasudevas(prati-vasudevas) 9 baladevas(balabhadras)
  20. Manju Nahar Says: 24 thithankar 12chakravathi 9 baldev 9 vasudev 20 viharmanji 16 satheyA

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