यह लेख हिंदी में पढ़ने के लिए यहाँ क्लिक करे
The Jain dharma considers Karma as an independent and separate entity.
It has been calculated in terms of Pudgals because the body is made up of Pudgals. Karma is its cause. Hence, Karma is also made up of Pudgals.
The impact of Karma and Pudgals on the soul is deep. The relationship between the soul and Karma is without a beginning. Though Karma becomes inert, it envelops the soul in the form of an energy.
It is not correct to think that the soul was pure once and that later it became enveloped in Karmas. The soul and Karmas have been bound together always, and that has no beginning, Of course, it is possible to prevent new Karmas from entering the soul.
Did you Read the Article on 9 Tattva?
Moreover, it is also possible to discard and destroy the Karmas that have collected in the soul and are clinging to it. Gold is found mixed with rocks. In the mines, they cut the rock; take out the pieces and by various physical and chemical processes pure gold is separated from these pieces of rock. In the same manner, even the soul can be made bright and pure by discarding and destroying all Karmas.
The relationship between the soul and Karmas which has been existing is not endless. It is possible to separate the Karmas from the soul, When the terror and impact of all the Karmas are discarded, the original radiant form of the soul shows itself.
The Jain dharma presents a very significant, farsighted and fascinating discussion on the Karma philosophy; and the discussion is such that it enables us to understand thoroughly the process of the Karma binding the soul.
The Original qualities of the soul and karmas that covers those qualities are:
1. Anant Jnan(Gyan) is covered by Jnanavaraniya(Gyanavarniya) Karma.
2. Anant Darshan is covered by Darsanavaraniya Karma.
3. Anant Charitra is covered by Mohaniya Karma.
4. Anant Virya is covered by Antaray Karma.
5. Akshay Sukh is covered by Vedaniya Karma.
6. Akshay Sthiti is covered by Ayushya Karma.
7. Agurulaghutva is covered by Gotra Karma.
8. Arupitva is covered by Nam Karma.
Let’s know The effect of the Karmas:
>> It would not be possible to explain in depth in 1 Article. We will explain more in the next Jainism Basics <<
The Jnanavaraniya (Gyanavarniya ) Karma is of five types and the effects of this karma are ignorance, inability to understand, stupidity, inertia, incapable of being taught, illiteracy stammering, etc.
The Darsanavaraniya Karma is of nine types and the effects of this karma are blindness, the incapacity of the senses, intoxication with power or money, sleep, swooning, etc may envelop the soul.
The Mohaniya Karma is of twenty-eight types and the effects of this karma are attachment, hatred, envy, infatuation, longing. ecstasy, contempt, deep attachment, miserliness etc., Thess defects envelop the soul.
The Antaray Karma is of five types and the effects of this karma are no desire to go on the right path; indolence, poverty; lack of strength; being worried by want; not being able to do auspicious actions.
The Vedaniya Karma is of two types and the effects of this karma are happiness; health; being free from diseases; and ill-health; sickness disease, sorrow etc., also may be caused.
The Ayushya Karma is of four types and the effects of this karma keep the soul wandering in the vicious circle of birth, life, and death.
The Gotra Karma is of two types and the effects of this karma are Being born in a good family and in a high status or being born in a low family or in a lower status.
The Nam Karma is of one hundred and three types and the effects of this karma are Well built body, Beauty and symmetry in body, or ugliness, notoriety – good fortune – misfortune – prosperity – adversity – honour – dishonour – played blindly by these two – one may attain also the status of Tirthankar by the influence of these factors.
What are different activities which bind these karmas? and why?
1. Condemning knowledge and scholars and enlightened people. Laziness, contempt, and displeasure in studying and teaching- By these things the Jnanavaraniya(Gyanavarniya) Karma binds the soul.
2. Condemning the canons of religion and Dharma; depreciating them – disrespecting the virtuous and decrying them -Always trying to find fault with such people, condemning piety with the feeling of skepticism. By these things, the Darsanavaraniya Karma binds the soul.
3. Treating the Gods, Preceptors with contempt. Having a deep attachment and hatred -Lamenting and weeping – Being miserly and subservient to passions -Being stupid; being attached; By these things, the Mohaniya Karma binds the soul.
4. By causing obstruction to the worship of the Paramatma and to spiritual activities. By plunging into such vices and sins as violence-By not giving charity-and by causing loss to others – on account of these actions’ the soul is bound by Antaräy Karma.
5. By not rendering service to the spiritual elders -By not being benevolent and austere and disciplined- by not undertaking vows to perform austerities. By causing worry and misery to others – the Ashata vedaniya Karma binds the soul.
>> By keeping off violence etc., by endeavoring to give others happiness and peace – by sharing in the sorrows of others -and by maintaining a cordial and friendly contact with all, the Shata Vedaniya Karma binds the soul.
6. Those who are immersed fully up to their throats in such sins as violence which shortens the life and those who do good deeds like offering a life support would bind Ayushya karmas accordingly.
7. Disrespecting the four-fold Jain Sangh and its organization- contempt and scorn for them -Speaking impertinently of them on account of pride- not fearing sins – on account of these things the Nicha-gotra Karma low-gotra Karma binds the soul.
>> Having devotion for and faith in the four-fold Sangh – being polite towards the Sangh -carrying out all activities with tenderness – not looking down upon anyone as low- Being free from pride; and by respecting and honoring all and treating all with love one binds the Uchha or higher gotra karma.
8. If one does not deceive others; and maintains a good conduct and leads a simple life, his soul is bound by the Shubh or auspicious Nama Karma: and if he acts contrary to these principles, his soul is bound by the Ashubh or inauspicious Nama Karma.
How can the Karma be discarded?
1. By worshipping, respecting the right and pure knowledge – studying and teaching – Taking part in spreading and disseminating knowledge -Respecting scholars and knowledgeable people one discards Jnanavaraniya Karma.
2. Having faith in the Lord and showing his devotion, obeying the commands of the Jinas, Respecting the virtuous people, II) Accepting the authority of the Dharmic commands and respecting the Sangh (the four-fold society), III) Being absolutely dedicated to the Paramatma etc., one discards Darsanavaraniya Karma.
3. By observing good rules of conduct with firmness and devotion -Exercising control over passions and excitements – living a life of discipline Controlling attachments hatred etc., one discards Mohaniya Karma.
4. The Antaray Karma can be discarded by giving charity -by having a darshan of the Paramatma and worshipping him -By performing austerities like Aradhana and Upasana -By rendering service -by means of devotion, tapascharya, benevolence and by leading a life of contentment.
5. By keeping off violence etc., by endeavoring to give others happiness and peace – by sharing in the sorrows of others -and by maintaining a cordial and friendly contact with all, the vedaniya Karma can be discarded.
6. Leading a noble and pure life, and one gradually discards the ayushya karma.
7. Having devotion for and faith in the four-fold Sangh – being polite towards the Sangh -carrying out all activities with tenderness – not looking down upon anyone as low- Being free from pride; and by respecting and honoring all and treating all with love one discards gotra karma.
8. One should not be jealous of anyone – one should keep one’s heart pure and wholesome -One should not have an attachment for any kind of worldly things. By these means, one discards naam Karma.
When the soul gets free from the clutches of these eight Karmas, its original quality blossoms with a hundred petals!
That is Mukti or salvation. That is Moksha; and that is the Paramatmapad, the status of the Supreme Soul. The entire journey of Jain Dharma is intended only to attain this Paramatmapad.
Sourced from Jain World