णमोकार मन्त्र जैन धर्म में सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण मन्त्र है। इसे ‘नवकार मन्त्र’, ‘नमस्कार मन्त्र’ या ‘पंच परमेष्ठि नमस्कार’ भी कहा जाता है। इस मन्त्र में अरिहन्तों, सिद्धों, आचार्यों, उपाध्यायों और साधुओं का नमस्कार किया गया है।
णमोकार महामंत्र’ एक लोकोत्तर मंत्र है। इस मंत्र को जैन धर्म का परम पवित्र और अनादि मूल मंत्र माना जाता है। इसमें किसी व्यक्ति का नहीं, किंतु संपूर्ण रूप से विकसित और विकासमान विशुद्ध आत्मस्वरूप का ही दर्शन, स्मरण, चिंतन, ध्यान एवं अनुभव किया जाता है। इसलिए यह अनादि और अक्षयस्वरूपी मंत्र है। लौकिक मंत्र आदि सिर्फ लौकिक लाभ पहुँचाते हैं, किंतु लोकोत्तर मंत्र लौकिक और लोकोत्तर दोनों कार्य सिद्ध करते हैं। इसलिए णमोकार मंत्र सर्वकार्य सिद्धिकारक लोकोत्तर मंत्र माना जाता है।
The meaning of Navkar Mantra in Hindi is as follows:
|णमो अरिहंताणं||अरिहंतो को नमस्कार हो।|
|णमो सिद्धाणं||सिद्धों को नमस्कार हो।|
|णमो आयरियाणं||आचार्यों को नमस्कार हो।|
|णमो उवज्झायाणं||उपाध्यायों को नमस्कार हो।.|
|णमो लोए सव्व साहूणं||लोक के सर्व साधुओं को नमस्कार|
|एसोपंचणमोक्कारो, सव्वपावप्पणासणो||यह णमोकार महामंत्र सब पापो का नाश करने वाला|
|मंगला णं च सव्वेसिं, पडमम हवई मंगलं||तथा सब मंगलो मे प्रथम मंगल है।|
Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most significant mantra in Jainism. This is the first prayer recited by the Jains while meditating.
The mantra is also variously referred to as the Pancha Namaskāra Mantra, Navakāra Mantra or Namaskāra Mantra. While reciting this mantra, the devotee bows with respect to the Panch Parameshti (the Supreme Five):
Siddha — The liberated souls
Acharyas — The spiritual leaders or Preceptors
Upadhayaya — Preceptor of less advanced ascetics
Sādhu — The monks or sages in the world
There is no mention of any particular names of the gods or any specific person. The prayer is done towards the guṇa (the good qualities) of the gods, teachers and the saints. Jains do not ask for any favors or material benefits from the tirthankaras or monastics. This mantra simply serves as a gesture of deep respect towards beings whom they believe are spiritually evolved, as well as to remind the people of their ultimate goal i.e. moksha (liberation). Navkar Mantra consists of 35 letters.
Meaning of the Panch Parameshti (the Supreme Five):
The word Arihanta is made up of two words:
1) Ari, meaning enemies,
2) Hanta, meaning destroyer.
Therefore, Arihanta means a destroyer of the enemies. These enemies are not people like you, me, or any animal, or plant, etc. These enemies are inner desires known as passions. These includes anger, ego, deception, and greed.
These are the internal enemies within us. Until we control our passions, the real nature or the power of our soul will not be realized or manifested. When a person (soul) wins over these inner enemies he/she is called Arihanta.
When that happens, the person has destroyed the four ghati karmas namely Jnanavarniya (knowledge blocking) Karma, Darshanavarniya (perception blocking) Karma, Mohniya (passion causing) Karma and Antaraya (obstacle causing) Karma.
These karmas are called ghati karmas because they directly affect the true nature of the soul. Arihanta attains: 1) Kevaljnan, perfect knowledge due to the destruction of all Jnanavarniya Karmas, 2) Kevaldarshan, perfect perception due to the destruction of all Darshanavarniya karmas, 3) becomes passionless due to the destruction of all Mohniya Karmas, and 4) gains infinite power due to the destruction of all Antaraya Karmas.
Complete knowledge and perception means they know and see everything everywhere that is happening now, that has happened in the past, and that will happen in the future. Arihantas are divided into two categories: Tirthankar and Ordinary.
Tirthankaras are special Arihants because they revitalize the Jain Sangh (four-fold Jain Order) consisting of Sädhus, Sädhvis, Shrävaks (male householders), and Shrävikäs (female householders).
During every half time cycle, twenty-four persons like us rise to the level of Tirthankar.
The first Tirthankar of our time period was Lord Rushabhdev, and the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankar was Lord Mahävira, who lived from 599 B. C. to 527 B. C. A Tirthankar is also called a Jinä. Jina means conqueror of passions. At the time of nirvän (liberated from the worldly existence), Arihanta sheds off the remaining four aghati karmas namely 1) Nam (physical structure forming) Karma, 2) Gotra (status forming) Karma, 3) Vedniya (pain and pleasure causing) Karma and 4) Ayushya (life span determining) Karma. These four karmas do not affect the true nature of the soul; therefore, they are called Aghati karmas. After attaining salvation these Arihants are called Siddhas.
Siddhas are the liberated souls. They are no longer among us because they have completely ended the cycle of birth and death. They have reached the ultimate highest state, salvation. They do not have any karmas, and they do not collect any new karmas.
This state of true freedom is called Moksha. Siddhas are experiencing unobstructed bliss (eternal happiness). They have complete knowledge and perception and infinite power. They are formless and have no passions and therefore are free from all temptations.
The message of Jina, Lord Mahävira the last Tirthankara, is carried on by the Ächäryas. They are our spiritual leaders. The responsibility of the spiritual welfare, but not social or economical welfare of the entire Jain Sangh, rests on the shoulders of the Ächäryas.
Before reaching this state, one has to do in-depth study and achieve mastery of the Jain scriptures (Ägams). In addition to acquiring a high level of spiritual excellence, they have the ability to lead the monks and nuns. They know various languages with a sound knowledge of other philosophies and religions of the area and the world.
This title is given to those Sädhus who have acquired a special knowledge of the Ägams and philosophical systems. They teach Jain scriptures to sädhus and sädhvis.
5. SADHUS AND SADHVIS :
When householders become detached from the worldly aspects of life and get the desire for spiritual uplift(and not worldly uplift), they give up their worldly lives and become sädhus (monk) or sädhvis (nun).
A male person is called sädhu, and a female person is called sädhvi. Before becoming sädhus or sädhvis, a lay person must observe sädhus to understand their life style and do religious studies.
When they feel confident that they will be able to live the life of a monk or a nun, then they inform the Ächärya that they are ready to become sadhu or sadhvi. If the Ächärya is convinced that they are ready and are capable of following the vows of sadhu or sadhvi, then he gives them Deekshä. Deeksha is initiation ceremony when a householders changes to a monk or a nun. At the time of Deekshä, the sadhu or sadhvi voluntarily accepts to obey following five major vows for the rest of his/her life:
- Commitment of Total Ahimsä (non-violence)-not to commit any type of violence.
- Commitment of Total Satya (truth)-not to indulge in any type of lie or falsehood.
- Commitment of Total Asteya (non-stealing)-not to take anything unless it is given.
- Commitment of Total Brahmacharya (celibacy)-not to indulge in any sensual. activities
- Commitment of Total Aparigraha (non-possessiveness)-not to acquire more than what is needed to maintain day to day life.